According to Paul van Seeters and Paul James defining a social movement entails a few minimal conditions of ‘coming together’:
“(1.) the formation of some kind of collective identity; (2.) the development of a shared normative orientation; (3.) the sharing of a concern for change of the status quo and (4.) the occurrence of moments of practical action that are at least subjectively connected together across time addressing this concern for change. Thus we define a social movement as a form of political association between persons who have at least a minimal sense of themselves as connected to others in common purpose and who come together across an extended period of time to effect social change in the name of that purpose.”
social movement, loosely organized but sustained campaign in support of a social goal, typically either the implementation or the prevention of a change in society‘s structure or values. Although social movements differ in size, they are all essentially collective. That is, they result from the more or less spontaneous coming together of people whose relationships are not defined by rules and procedures but who merely share a common outlook on society.
All definitions of social movement reflect the notion that social movements are intrinsically related to social change. They don’t encompass the activities of people as members of stable social groups with established, unquestioned structures, norms, and values. The behavior of members of social movements does not reflect the assumption that the social order will continue essentially as it is. It reflects, instead, the faith that people collectively can bring about or prevent social change if they will dedicate themselves to the pursuit of a goal. Uncommitted observers may regard these goals as illusions, but to the members they are hopes that are quite capable of realization. Asked about his activities, the member of a social movement would not reply, “I do this because it has always been done” or “It’s just the custom.” He is aware that his behaviour is influenced by the goal of the movement: to bring about a change in the way things have “always” been done or sometimes to prevent such a change from coming about.